SCIENCE IN RUSSIA
Russia is the motherland of many scientists, discoverers and inventors who have made a significant contribution to world science.
The names of Russian scientists are known all over the world: Miklouho-Maclay, Lomonosov, Mendeleev, Kovalevskaya, Botkin, Kapitsa, Landau and many others. Moreover, Russian scientists not only made discoveries in various fields of science, but also applied their scientific theories in practice.
The 18th century has become an important milestone in the history of Russian science. On 28 January 1724, the Emperor Peter the Great (1672-1725) of the Russian Empire issued a decree establishing the Academy of Sciences in Saint-Petersburg. Peter the Great clearly understood the importance of science, education and culture in prosperity of the Country. After the foundation of the Academy of Sciences, scientists enjoyed the freedom of scientific creativity and actively published scientific works. Moreover, from the very beginning of its activity, the Academy of Sciences has become an honorable institution among the largest scientific institutions of Europe.
Top Russian scientists worked at the Academy of Sciences, one of which was Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (1711-1765), a man who made discoveries in chemistry, physics and astronomy that were decades ahead of the works of foreign scientists. Moreover, Lomonosov discovered the atmosphere on the planet Venus, laid the foundations of physical chemistry, explained the origin of many minerals, and, at the same time, was an outstanding historian and writer.
In 1755, M.V. Lomonosov founded Imperial Moscow University (now Lomonosov Moscow State University), which is one of the most prestigious in Russia and in the world. Besides, the first University in Russia was founded in 1724 in Saint-Petersburg (now St. Petersburg University) and is also one of the top educational and scientific institutions in Russia.
In the 20th century, the Academy of Sciences moved to Moscow and played a decisive role in the development of high-quality Russian education, actively contributing to the creation of a system of Universities and higher education institutions, as well as the training of scientific personnel.
Noteworthy, the Institute of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences since 1947 has been named after the outstanding Russian humanist scientist and traveler Nikolay Nikolaevich Miklouho-Maclay (1846-1888), who devoted more than 15 years to ethnographic and anthropological research in Southeast Asia and Oceania, followed the humanistic principle of respect for the culture and traditions of the peoples of the world, and also fought for the rights of residents of Southeast Asia and Oceania.
The Russian Academy of Sciences has preserved its unity up to the 21st century and remains the main scientific center of Russia and one of the top scientific centers of world science.
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Russian Academy of Sciences. Photo by andreasley
Mendeleev’s Periodic table of elements
Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo by NASA (Bill Ingalls)